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Female checking thyroid gland by herself. Close up of woman in white t- shirt touching nec



The endocrinologist is a physician specializing in endocrinology and metabolism, a subject responsible for the study and treatment of diseases of our endocrine system. Hormones are the substances by which these organs and systems act on our entire body.

Our main endocrine glands (which produce hormones) are:

Pituitary: endocrine gland  the size of a pea, approximately 1 g, located in the center of the brain, responsible for the production of most of our regulatory hormones - these are hormones responsible for regulating the other endocrine glands, such as the thyroid, the gonads (testicles and ovaries), the adrenal glands, the breast (which is an exocrine gland), also regulates growth.  through GH and water control of the body with the kidneys through ADH (antidiuretic hormone).

Thyroid: gland responsible for the control of metabolism, known as metabolism conductor, because when not very active it can lead to sluggishness, drowsiness, weakness, constipation, dry skin, cold, tiredness, weak nails and hair and even changes in fertility, especially in women .

The parathyroids: are 4 small glands located behind the thyroid of approximately 0.4g each and responsible for the production of PTH (parathormone). Parathormone, or parathyroid hormone, is a calcitonin antagonistic hormone produced by the thyroid C cells. When the concentration of calcium in the blood increases far beyond the average value, the secretion of calcitonin also increases, and calcium deposits in the bones, calcium reabsorption by the kidneys decreases, and the calcium concentration in the blood falls. When the concentration decreases below the average value, parathormone will act on osteoclasts (cells that act in the remodeling of  bones ) which will reabsorb the bone matrix, solubilizing calcium. This increases the absorption of calcium in the intestine and reabsorption in the kidneys, which will increase the concentration of calcium in the blood.

The testicles, the main responsible for the production of testosterone that acts on several organs such as muscles, skin, vocal cords, hair and hair, prostate, brain, stimulating sperm production, increased lean mass, a deeper voice, hair more dense distribution, characteristically male, hair loss in susceptible people, increased aggression, impulsiveness and libido, among others.

The ovaries, mainly responsible for the production of estradiol and progesterone, which act in various organs such as breast development, and body hair, in addition to regulating ovulation. They are active for a limited period of life, from puberty to menopause.

The adrenals are small glands located above the kidneys that act to produce cortisol – our stress response hormone, aldosterone  - Responsible for the regulation of sodium and potassium, testosterone and other hormones with androgenic action, adrenaline that regulates our autonomic nervous system – heart rate, breathing, digestion, among others.

The pancreas: responsible for the production of insulin, our anabolic hormone, responsible for introducing glucose into the cells enabling its use as our main source of energy. It also produces glucagon which stimulates the release of blood sugar from the liver.  The pancreas also produces digestive enzymes (which are not hormones) and releases them directly into the digestive system.  Amylase digests carbohydrates, lipase digests fat, and trypsin digests protein. The pancreas also secretes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate, which protects the duodenum by neutralizing the acid that comes from the stomach.

Adipose tissue: our most recently studied endocrine organ responsible for the production of adipokines. Among the main adipokines secreted by adipose tissue, the following stand out:

  - Adiponectin: has an influence on insulin sensitization and antiatherogenic properties; and is reduced in obesity.

- Estrogens: responsible for converting testosterone into estradiol and androstenedione into estrone, both in men and women.

  - Angiotensinogen: acts as a precursor of angiotensin II, regulating blood pressure and influencing adiposity;

- Interleukin 6: acts as a mediator of the inflammatory process and influences lipid metabolism;

  - Leptin: has a brain signaling effect on body fat storage, in addition to influencing insulin sensitization, appetite regulation and energy expenditure;

  - Plasminogen activator inhibitor I: acts as a potent inhibitor of the fibrinolysis system; - Resistin: influences the development of insulin resistance through increased hepatic gluconeogenesis;

  - Tumor necrosis factor: interferes with insulin signaling and a possible cause of insulin resistance in obesity.

Therefore, the endrocrinologist is the physician responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, such as:

  diabetes mellitus (blood glucose control)

  diabetes insipidus (ADH deficiency and excessive urine leading to severe dehydration)

  hyperprolactinemia (milk production from the breasts outside the breastfeeding period of the baby)

adrenal insufficiency (with excessive weakness,  by corticosteroid deficiency)

  cushing (excess of corticosteroids - with weight gain, large stretch marks on the skin)

Puberty and growth: by the action of sex hormones and GH

Osteoporosis and other bone diseases such as Paget's disease of bone, rickets and osteomalacia, osteogenesis imperfecta, among others.

Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: changes in thyroid hormone production

Thyroid nodules and tumors

Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism: alterations in the production of parathyroid hormones.

Pituitary tumors: hormone producers or not

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